In 1506, the Uzbeks overtook the declining Timurid Empire. Twenty years later in 1526, Baber, the sixth-generation descendant of Timur, invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire. Baber was descended from Genghis Khan of the Mongols on his mother's side, so his dynasty was entitled "Mughal," a name derived from the Indian rendition for the Mongol people.
By the 17th century, the empire was flourishing with boundaries that covered modern day India and Pakistan as well as eastern Afghanistan. The fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir (1605-1627) and his son, the fifth emperor Shah Jahan (1627-1658), were exceptional patrons of jade craftsmanship. Mughal jade art successfully integrated Chinese, Central Asian, Indian and European techniques to produce works exquisitely elegant and proud. Shah Jahan, besides promoting the arts, commissioned large palaces and mausoleums. The world famous Taj Mahal in Agra was a mausoleum Shah Jahan built for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died at age 39 in childbirth.
The Mughal Empire was much weakened in the 18th and 19th centuries, but rising political powers continued to value the art of jade. Under these emerging forces, "non-classic Mughal-style Indian jades" developed.